An Introduction to Statistical Problem Solving in Geography

Fourth Edition

The fourth edition of *An Introduction to Statistical Problem Solving in Geography* continues its standing as the definitive introduction to statistics and quantitative analysis in geography. Assuming no reader background in statistics, the authors lay out the proper role of statistical analysis and methods in human and physical geography. They delve into the calculation of descriptive summaries and graphics to explain geographic patterns and use inferential statistics (parametric and nonparametric) to test for differences (*t*-tests, ANOVA), relationships (regression and correlation), and spatial statistics (point and area patterns, spatial autocorrelation).

This edition introduces more advanced topics, including logistic regression, two-factor ANOVA, and spatial estimation (inverse distance weighting, Kriging). Many chapters also include thought-provoking discussions of statistical concepts as they relate to the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintaining an exploratory and investigative approach throughout, the authors provide readers with real-world geographic issues and more than 50 map examples. Concepts are explained clearly and narratively without oversimplification. Each chapter concludes with a list of major goals and objectives. An epilogue offers over 150 open-ended geographic situations, inviting students to apply their new statistical skills to solve problems currently affecting our world.

"Excellent revision and additions! It is one of my favorite textbooks for students, clearly presenting the geographical perspective on solving quantitative problems." -Sheryl Luzzadder-Beach, *University of Texas at Austin*

"The reasonable cost is just icing on the cake of its other qualities. It is written at just the right level for undergraduate geography majors. The data examples are excellent. Every geography student finds some dataset that connects with their interests. The graphics are well drawn and produced." -Charles Geiger, *Millersville University*

**Part 1: BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS IN GEOGRAPHY**

1. Introduction: The Context of Statistical Techniques

2. Geographic Data: Characteristics and Preparation

**Part 2: DESCRIPTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING IN GEOGRAPHY**

3. Descriptive Statistics and Graphics

4. Descriptive Spatial Statistics

**Part 3: THE TRANSITION TO INFERENTIAL PROBLEM SOLVING**

5. Basics of Probability and Discrete Probability Distributions

6. Continuous Probability Distributions and Probability Mapping

7. Basic Elements of Sampling

8. Estimation in Sampling

**Part 4: INFERENTIAL PROBLEM SOLVING IN GEOGRAPHY**

9. Elements of Inferential Statistics

10. Two-Sample and Dependent-Sample (Matched-Pairs) Difference Tests

11. Three-or-More-Sample Difference Tests: Analysis of Variance Methods

12. Categorical Difference Tests

**Part 5: INFERENTIAL SPATIAL STATISTICS**

13. General Issues in Inferential Spatial Statistics

14. Point Pattern Analysis

15. Area Pattern Analysis

**Part 6: STATISTICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES**

16. Correlation

17. Simple Linear Regression

**Part 7: MULTIVARIATE PROBLEM-SOLVING IN GEOGRAPHY**

18. Examples of Multivariate Problem-Solving in Geography

19. Multifactor Analysis: Two-Way Analysis of Variance

20. The Basics of Binary Logistic Regression

21. Estimation with Spatial Data

**Part 8: EPILOGUE**

22. Problem Solving and Policy Determination in Practical Geographic Situations

Appendix: Statistical Tables